CSD CURRICULUM MAPS Tools for Curriculum Coherence and Equity
Curriculum Map Purpose
Canyons School District’s curriculum maps are standards-based maps driven by the Utah Core Standards and implemented using materials adopted by the Canyons’ Board of Education. The maps and materials are coordinated vertically within feeder systems and horizontally within grade-levels. Student achievement is increased when both teachers and students know where they are going, why they are going there, and what is required of them to get there.
Curriculum Mapping are a Tool for:
• ALIGNMENT: Provides support and coordination between concepts, skills, standards, curriculum, and assessments. • COMMUNICATION: Articulates expectations and learning goals for students. • PLANNING: Focuses instructional decisions and targets critical information for instructional tasks. • COLLABORATION: Promotes professionalism and fosters dialogue between colleagues about best practices pertaining to sequencing, unit emphasis, length, integration, and review strategies.
Curriculum Mapping Collaboration
Canyon School District Curriculum maps were collaboratively developed and refined by teacher committees, achievement coaches, building administrators, and the Instructional Supports Department.
Canyons School District 2020-2021 School Calendar K-12
No Student Day (Compensatory Day) Last Day of School/End of 3rd Trimester
S M T W T F S S M T W T F S
(Note: School emergency closure
1 days will be made up first 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 on Presidents' Day, and the Board 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 reserves the right to meet 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 to determine a secondary date.) 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 27 28 29 30 30 31 1 2 3 4 5
Teachers at School
End of Trimester
Start and End of School Year
Midterm No Student Days
CSD Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) Framework
MTSS Critical Components
High Quality Academic and Behavioral Instruction and Intervention
Data for Decision Making
Team-based Problem Solving
• Building a positive school climate involves actively promoting building positive relationships, setting high expectations, and committing to every student’s success. • Equitable education ensures equal access regardless of race, color, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, disability, language, or socioeconomic status. • Ongoing, targeted, quality professional development and coaching supports effective instruction for ALL students. • Leadership at all levels is vital. • ALL CSD students, parents, and educators are part of ONE proactive educational system that is committed to equitable outcomes. • Evidence-based instruction and interventions are aligned with rigorous standards. • CSD educators use assessments that are reliable, valid, and aligned to standards. • CSD educators use data to measure student progress and implementation of system supports
• CSD educators use data to guide instructional decisions, and allocate resources. • CSD educators problem solve collaboratively to meet student needs.
Student Achievement Principles for Academics and Behavior
Evidence-Based Instructional Priorities: BEHAVIOR Classroom PBIS expectations are aligned to schoolwide PBIS expectations and implemented to prevent and decrease behavioral disruptions. 1. Establish and post rules/ routines 2. Teach rules/routines 3. Monitor rules/routines 4. Reinforce rules/routines 5. Correct behavior errors 6. Use data for decision making Positive teacher-student relationships (ES: 0.75) Active supervision (ES: 0.62) Pre-correction (ES: 0.83) High ratio of positive to corrective feedback (ideally 4:1 or higher) (ES: 0.75) Precision requests Differential reinforcement (ES: 0.95) De-escalation Strategies: Help, Prompt, Wait PBIS Toolbox: Self-monitoring (ES: 0.97) Group contingencies (ES: 1.02) Token economy (ES: 0.90) Classroom PBIS (ES: 0.68)
Standards for Instruction
Time Allocation for Instruction
Teacher and Team Learning Data
Student Performance Data
Continuous Problem Solving for Improvement
Standards clarify what students are expected to learn and do.
School culture ensures that instructional time is maximized to increase student growth.
Supporting teacher learning and professional growth is fostered through public practice and ongoing feedback. Annual setting of goals and documentation of progress (e.g. TSSP, LANDTrust, CTESS) Public practice applications: • Coaching cycles with peer coaches, teacher specialist, achievement coach, and/or new teacher coach • Learning walkthroughs and targeted observations • Lesson study • Video analysis Formalized classroom and system protocols and checklists to monitor and support implementation
Student academic and behavioral performance is assessed using a variety of reliable and valid methods. Effective assessment practices: • Increase instructional agility • Provide feedback about learning to students, parents, and teachers • Build student efficacy • Monitor student academic and behavioral growth • Celebrate teaching and learning successes (ACADIENCE, RI, MI) • Classroom Assessing • Team and School-wide Assessments • District-wide Standards-based Assessments • Comprehensive Assessments (e.g. RISE, ACT, ACT Aspire) • Specialized Assessments CSD Assessment System: • Screening Assessments
Structures in all schools that provide comprehensive support for academic and behavior monitoring. Building Leadership Teams (BLT) use data to: • Design a tiered system of academic and social/emotional supports • Plan professional development • Develop CSIP goals and monitor progress • Monitor implementation effectiveness across tiers Instructional Professional Learning Communities (IPLC) use data to: • Design instructional adjustments needed to ensure success for all students • Plan for increasing the intensity of core scaffolds to address social emotional needs of students as needed • Refer students for consideration of more intensive standardized interventions as need arises Student Support Teams (SST) use data to: • Design, implement, and monitor intervention plans for individual students whose social/ emotional needs require more intensive, individualized supports
Multiple data sources are used for ongoing problem solving and equitable decision making across tiers. Standardized problem solving process is used by teams to identify, analyze, plan, and evaluate relevant data in a timely and consistent manner to: • Identify academic and behavioral risk • Analyze relevant data in teams (e.g. BLT, IPLC, SST) • Plan implementation of academic and behavioral interventions as student needs indicate effectiveness of academic and behavioral instruction across tiers using valid and reliable data (student and teacher data) • Monitor and evaluate
Instructional content aligned with the Utah Core Standards School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Curriculum maps with common pacing guides Scientifically research-based programs Standards-based instruction and reporting Cognitive Rigor (Depth of Knowledge—DOK) International Society for Technology in Education Standards (ISTE) World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA) Federal and state requirements (IEP, 504, ELs)
Classroom instructional time prioritized for instruction of standards Individual and team planning time intentionally increases the application of evidence-based instructional priorities and standards for instruction Master schedule considers the learning needs of the student population Scheduling ensured for: • Intervention and skill-based instruction • Special Education services • English Language Development (ELD)
(WIDA, IDEA eligibility assessments, Phonics Surveys)
P UBLIC P RACTICE AND C OACHING S UPPORTS
March 2019 - V.8.2
All students will graduate from Canyons School District college-, career-, and citizenship- ready.
Major Academic Commitments: 1. Promote school and community engagement that supports students in becoming college-, career-, and citizenship-ready. 2. Implement a comprehensive educational system that aligns quality curriculum, instruction, and assessment resulting in students becoming college-, career-, and citizenship-ready. 3. Recruit, develop, support and retain quality educators who are committed to preparing students for college, career, and citizenship.
March 2019 - V.8.2
Canyons School District
Instructional Supports Department
Our time with students is limited and valuable. Every minute should be spent using the practices that are most likely to be successful. This requires us to shift our perspective from focusing on instructional practices that work, to focusing on what instructional practices work BEST. INSTRUCTIONAL PRIORITIES High Yielding Strategies to increase Student Achievement and Engagement
What Works Best? Meta-analysis offers the strongest evidence base for determining what works best. “A Meta-analysis is a summary, or synthesis of relevant research findings. It looks at all of the individual studies done on a particular topic and summarizes them.” (Marzano, 2000). A meta-analysis is simply a study of studies. A meta-analysis explains the results across studies using effect size (ES). Average effect sizes for one year of instruction are 0.20 to 0.40 (Hattie, 2009). Thus, the hinge point for determining what works best is 0.40. Instructional practices above 0.40 have a higher likelihood of increasing learning beyond typical growth than those practices below the hinge-point (Hattie, 2009).
Canyons School District
Instructional Supports Department
INSTRUCTIONAL PRIORITIES FOR ACADEMICS High Yielding Strategies to increase Student Achievement and Engagement
Critical Actions for Educators
*Provide clear learning intentions for students daily. *Share rubrics, exemplars, models prior to student work time. *Assess to identify who needs further support.
*Give clear, straightforward, and unequivocal directions. *Explain, demonstrate and model. Introduce skills in a specific and logical order. Supporting sequence of instruction in lesson plans. *Break skills down into manageable steps. Review frequently. *Demonstrate the skills for students and give opportunity to practice skills independently. *Explicitly teach a skill to students by explaining, demonstrating, and modeling. *Build the skill through practice and use, to gain automaticity. *Provide students with multiple opportunities to apply the skill. 1 *Explicitly teach critical vocabulary before students are expected to use it in context. *Teach students to say, define, and use critical vocabulary in discreet steps. *Explicitly teach common academic vocabulary across all content areas. * Create norms for classroom discussions. *Use prompts and cues to help students zero in on new learning, remember critical points, and connect to previous learning.
Explicit Instruction (I do, We do, Y’all do, You do) Instructional Hierarchy: Acquisition Automaticity Application (AAA) Systematic Vocabulary Development
Structured Classroom Discussion
*Scaffold discussion by using structured discussion frames. *Provide opportunities for verbal and written practice. *Use academic language.
*Actively engage ALL students in learning; students are active when they are saying, writing, or doing.
Maximizing Opportunities to Respond (OTR)
*Pace instruction to allow for frequent student responses. *Call on a wide variety of students throughout each period.
*Provide timely prompts that indicate when students have done something correctly or incorrectly. *Give students the opportunity to use the feedback to continue their learning process. *End feedback cycles with the student performing the skill correctly and receiving positive acknowledgement. *Present information at various levels of difficulty. *Use data to identify needs and create small groups to target specific skills. *Frequently analyze current data and move students within groups depending on their changing needs.
Scaffolded Instruction and Grouping Structures 0.49 1
1 Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning . New York, NY: Routledge. 2 Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement . New York, NY: Routledge.
INSTRUCTIONAL AGILITY Intentional Maneuvers to Make in Response to Evidence of Student Learning
Teacher agility, as defined by Tom Schimmer (2014), is an intentional maneuver that a teacher makes in response to evidence of student learning. In order to make these intentional maneuvers, teachers must teach and assess simultaneously. As teachers gather evidence from informal assessments, they make flexible and precise decisions about which maneuvers to make and where to spend more instructional time. The instructional priorities are the tools, both online and blended, teachers use to become agile when moving students through the instructional hierarchy (acquisition, automaticity, application.) Teachers utilize Opportunities To Respond (OTRs) to check for student understanding often, and to provide feedback to students. The information obtained through OTRs allows teachers to determine where a student is in the instructional hierarchy, and what strategies to employ for student success. Do students need more explicit instruction so they can acquire or become automatic at a skill? Should a different scaffold be used during explicit instruction since most students aren’t understanding? Which students have become automatic and are ready to go to the application phase? etc.
Critical Actions for Educators *Incorporate informal assessment (OTRs) regularly. *Feedback from students determine teachers’ next instructional steps in all modalities of online and blended learning. *Teachers move fluidly through all DOK levels based on student feedback in all modalities. *OTRs are determined within modalities of online and blended according to where students are in the instructional hierarchy (AAA).
When teachers are clear in the expectations and instruction, students learn more regardless of the learning environment, either blended or online. Fedick (1990) defined teacher clarity as “a measure of the clarity of communication between teachers and students in both directions” and further described it across four dimensions: 1. Clarity of organization, such that lesson tasks, assignments, and activities include links to the objectives and outcomes of learning. 2. Clarity of explanation, such that information is relevant, accurate, and comprehensible to students. 3. Clarity of examples and guided practice, such that the lesson, such that the lesson includes information that is illustrative and illuminating as students gradually move to independence, making progress with less support from the teacher. 4. Clarity of assessment of student learning, such that the teacher is regularly seeking out the acting upon the feedback he or she receives from student, especially through their verbal and written responses. Teacher Expectations have a powerful influence on student achievement, with an effect size of 0.43 (Hattie 2009). Establishing and communicating learning intentions is an important way that teachers share their expectations with students. Analyzing Success Criteria is another way of determining the expectations a teacher has for students. A given learning intention could have multiple success criteria. Additionally, teachers that plan and create assessments also communicate expectations to students. Teachers with higher expectations tend to talk less, supporting students to talk more and allow for assessing students at deeper levels of understanding.
Accurate at Skill? • If no, teach skill. • If yes, move to automaticity. Critical Actions for Educators *Use the CSD Unpacking template. *Use the CSD Lesson planning template and curriculum map. *Collaborate with IPLC *Post learning intentions & success criteria. *Utilize rubrics and exemplars to provid direction for learning and mastery.
An efficient and effect way to plan for teacher clarity is within an IPLC. Each of the 4 questions of an IPLC is answered as teachers engage in work around Teacher Clarity. The figure below provides an overview of how teacher clarity is linked within an IPLC.
IPLC Question What is it we expect our students to learn?
How will we know if they have learned it? Teachers are focused on how they will know if students are successful in learning. This requires that teachers first identify what success looks like, and identify summative assessment tools that can be used to determine mastery of the standard. Key components include: • Craft success criteria • Establish mastery of standards
How will we respond when some students do not learn/learn?
Teacher Clarity Component(s)
Teachers analyze standards to determine what students need to know and sequence learning such that it is logical and allows for both content and language development. Key components include: • Identify concepts & skills • Sequence learning progressions • Identify learning intentions • Include language expectations • Determine the relevance of the learning
Teachers must identify monitoring tools that can be used to adjust instruction and provide supplemental support for students. In addition, teachers need to create meaningful learning experiences for students to help them practice new skills. Key components include: • Design assessment • Create meaningful learning experiences
Adapted from Fisher & Frey, Teacher Clarity Playbook, 2019
TEACHER CLARITY Unpacking a Standard Implementation Tools & Resources
What Does it Mean to Unpack a Standard?
Begin by looking at a grade level standard and take it apart to understand what skills and concepts students need in order to master the standard. Unpacking a standard is thinking through all of the concepts and all of the skills in order to design the learning progressions and learning intentions and success criteria. The process involves analyzing the language of the standard and extracting clues that describe what students need to know. Nouns (concepts): represent what it is the student needs to know. Verbs (skills): speak to the skills students must acquire in order to make the concepts, and content useful. Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence
Verbs: Cite Support Draw from
Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences
Learning Progressions While studying standards and planning for instructional units, ask the question, “How
might the concepts and skills in each standard be taught in a logical way?” Although standards represent the end knowledge that students gain through interaction with the content, learning progressions help teachers plan out a pathway to student proficiency of each standard. Learning progressions are not individual, daily lessons; instead, they are the intermediate steps that students take to ensure they are
learning the concepts and skills in a logical manner. “…Learning Progressions detail the logical order of students’ learning, and teachers decide where to start and what to include, based on their knowledge of their students” (Teacher Clarity Playbook, pg 11).
Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence Learning Progressions: 1. Determine the major themes, plot, characters, and setting of the text. 2. Make inferences about the text 3. Create a logical claim based on the text. 4. Use evidence to support an analysis of what the text explicitly says. 5. Use evidence to support inferences drawn from the text. 6. Use formal reasoning to explain how the evidence supports your claim. 7. Use MLA format for citations. Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences Verbs: Cite Support Draw from
Learning Intentions communicate, in student friendly language, the learning that will take place in the lesson. Learning Intentions should be revisited and referred to often over the course of the lesson and contribute to student success. “When students do not know what they are expected to learn, the chance that they actually learn is reduced” (Fisher, Frey, 2019). Evidence indicates when students know what they are supposed to be learning they are three times more likely to learn it (Hattie, 2012). Well articulated rubrics and exemplars are used to provide expectations for learning and clarify success criteria. Teachers invite students to explain what they learned and compare with the learning intention stated at the beginning of the lesson (Teacher Clarity Playbook, pg. 21).
Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence
Verbs: Cite Support Draw from
Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences
Learning Progressions: 1. Determine the major themes, plot, characters, and setting of the text. 2. Make inferences about the text 3. Create a logical claim based on the text. 4. Use evidence to support an analysis of what the text explicitly says. 5. Use evidence to support inferences drawn from the text. 6. Use formal reasoning to explain how the evidence supports your claim. 7. Use MLA format for citations. Learning Intentions: • I am learning how to identify important details in the text and how to Success Criteria: 1. I can list important details in the text. 2. I can rephrase important details in my own words.
Relevance: 1. Understanding the important details helps you make sense of what you read. 2. Writers need to present ideas logically so their readers understand.
share my thinking with a partner using complete sentences
Explicit instruction is a systematic method of teaching in small chunks, checking for student understanding, and achieving active and successful participation by all students whether in a classroom or on a digital platform. Student Feedback/Checks for Understanding
Critical Actions for Educators *Give clear, straightforward, and unequivocal directions. *Explain, demonstrate and model. Introduce skills in a specific and logical order. Supporting sequence of instruction in lesson plans. *Break skills down into manageable steps. Review frequently. *Demonstrate the skills for students and then give the opportunity to practice skills independently. * I do, We Do, Y’all Do, You Do. * Use multimedia tools to create resources for students that can be reviewed. * Provide a backchannel where students can engage and ask questions. * Schedule google meets
I Do Teacher Modeling
We Do Guided Practice
Y’all Do Group Practice
You Do Individual Practice
Explicit Instruction is generally characterized with the following components: I Do, We Do, Y’all Do, and You Do. This model allows for instructional agility as teachers use student feedback to determine how to progress through instruction. For instance, if students are in the “We Do” phase, and the teacher has determined through checks for understanding that students are not understanding, the teacher moves back to the “I Do” phase to provide more modeling and examples.
• Demonstrate & describe • Use Think-Alouds • Provide routine for engaging and asking questions digitally • Provide frequent feedback • Video and/or screencast short mini-lessons • Heavily scaffold with prompts • Cue, Ask, Prompt, Re-phrase • Continually check for understanding • Provide feedback • Reteach when necessary • Provide exemplars • Set up small/groups and partners intentionally • Continual checks for understanding • Use precision partnering • Provide feedback • Reteach when necessary • Provide exemplars
• Actively engage in instruction • Respond to OTRs • Take notes (Cornell Notes) • Ask questions
I Do (Teacher Modeling)
• Group practice with teacher feedback • Ask questions for clarity
We Do (Guided Practice)
• Respond to OTRs • Utilize exemplars
virtual office hours when students can seek support.
• Practice skill(s) in small groups/partners • Ask questions for clarity • Respond to OTRs • Utilize exemplars
Y’all Do (Group Practice)
• Monitor individual practice • Provide feedback • Reteach when necessary
• Show mastery of skill • Ask questions for clarity • Respond to feedback
Acquisition, automaticity, and application are progressive stages of the instructional hierarchy. Each stage requires its own set of pedagogical approaches and assessment strategies. Learners follow predictable stages. To begin, the learner is usually uncertain and tentative as they try to use a new skill. With feedback and practice, the learner becomes increasingly accurate, then automatic (fluent), and confident in using the skill. Once fluency is obtained, the learner is now ready to be given opportunities to apply the skill in varied real-life experiences. Not all learners advance through these stages of instruction at the same pace. Some students need more time in the acquisition phase, while others will advance quickly to the application phase. Teachers utilize formal and informal assessments to help determine which phase learners are in. This feedback from students allows teachers to be agile in their instructional response in order to meet students’ needs.
Critical Actions for Educators * Explicitly teach a skill to students by explaining, demonstrating, and modeling. *Build the skill through practice and use, to gain automaticity. *Provide students with multiple opportunities to apply the skill. *Use the LEARN platform as a guide to select tools that best fit student tasks.
Accurate at Skill? • If no, teach skill. • If yes, move to automaticity.
Automatic at Skill? • If no, teach automaticity with • If yes, move to application.
Able to Apply Skill? • If no, teach application. • If yes, move to higher level/concept or repeat cycle with new knowledge.
The student can perform the skill accurately with little adult support.
If goal met, proceed to Automaticity stage; if not, re- teach skill.
• Teacher actively demonstrates target skill • Teacher uses ‘think-aloud’ strategy-- especially for thinking skills that are otherwise covert • Student has models of correct performance to consult as needed (e.g., correctly completed math problems on board) • Student receives feedback about correct performance • Student receives encouragement and praise for effort • Students take notes, outlines, points • Teacher structures learning activities to give student opportunity for active (observable) responding • Student has frequent opportunities to drill (direct repetition of target skill) and practice (blending target skill with other skills to solve problems) • Student receives feedback on fluency and accuracy of performance • Student receives encouragement and praise for increased fluency • Teacher structures academic tasks to require that the student use the target skill regularly in assignments • Student receives encouragement and praise for using skill in new settings, situations • Teacher works with parents to identify tasks that the student can do outside of school to practice target skill • Teacher helps student to articulate the ‘big ideas’ or core element(s) of target skill that the student can modify to apply to novel tasks and situations • Teacher encourages student to set own goals for adapting skill to new and challenging situations
Acquisition • First learning stage • Teacher feedback to increase accuracy • Typically associated with DOK 1 Automaticity • Building habits and fluent skills through repetition and deliberate practice with timely and descriptive feedback • Typically associated with DOK 2 Application • Applying knowledge or skills to relevant application • Typically associated with DOK 3 & 4
The student has learned skill well enough to retain, to combine with other skills, and is as fluent as peers.
If observed, proceed to Application stage; if not, continue or move back to Acquisition stage.
The student uses the skill across situations and settings solving real life problems.
If observed, move to new skills and knowledge or move to a higher level concept; if not observed, try again or go back to building Automaticity.
Structured Classroom Discussions are frequent and sustained back and forth dialogues in which students focus on an academic topic and explore it by building, challenging, and negotiating relevant ideas to build new meaning using academic language (Zwiers & Crawford, 2011). Classroom discussion is vital for academic language development, comprehension, and critical thinking across all content areas. • Intentionally planned discussions that target standards are essential for deep understanding of complex texts and academic content. • Discussion allows for students to co-construct knowledge through interaction between reader and text, teacher and students, as well as student to student. • Dialogue during reading includes the interaction between text and reader, but also the critical thinking and writing necessary to engage in the comparison, explication, reasoning, and contextualization of ideas, while increasing communicative competence. Academic Language is the formal words, phrases, sentences, and discourse features that students need to use and understand in order to succeed at academic tasks including content area specific language needed to speak, listen, read, and write for academic purpose and audience. Building academic language is critical across ALL subject areas, and is included in the speaking and listening standards in ELA, the math practice standards, the science and technical subject literacy standards, the social studies literacy standards, and in world language standards.
Critical Actions for Educators *Create and teach norms for classroom discussions. *Expect academic language during discussion. *Set a clear purpose for discussion. *Plan content (task/text context) that requires thinking demonstrated through class discussion *Model and teach examples of academic language use and structures. *Scaffold discussion by using structured discussion frames. *Use prompts and cues to help students engage in new content, recall critical points, elaborate, and construct meaning. *Provide opportunities for verbal and written practice. *Evaluate understanding and assess language use. *Provide feedback with purposeful questions that check, build and deepen understanding.
Participation Moves for Students
• Follow norms and expectations • Come prepared for discussion • Use discussion frames and language tools • Listen to others with care in order to: • Pose and respond to questions
• Elaborate, clarify, question, and persuade • Draw conclusions • Support ideas with examples • Build on and/or respectfully challenge another’s ideas • Paraphrase • Synthesize discussion points
Building Communicative Competencies with Talk Moves
Frames for Prompting
Frames for Responding
Re-Voicing Teacher repeats what students have said and ask for clarification Purpose: Students clarify their own thinking so ideas are available to others. Repeating (Paraphrasing) Restating what another student has said in one’s own words. Purpose: Orients students to listen carefully to the thinking and/or reasoning of other students.
• Is that what you were saying? • Tell me if I am understanding you correctly. You are saying . . . ? • Tell me more about that . . . • What do you mean when you say. . . ? • Give me an example of what you mean by . . . ? • What was _____’s idea/opinion/ statement? • Please tell us what _____ said in your own words. • What did your partner say?
• Yes, that’s right/correct. • No. What I (meant/said) was . . . • So you are saying . . . • I hear . . . Is that correct? • I think/believe/know . . . • My (idea, answer, opinion) is . . .
• I hear ____ say ______. • My partner said . . .
• What do you mean by . . . ? • I didn’t hear you. Will you say that louder? • Will you repeat that? • Can you explain that in another way?
Teacher Facilitated Discussion Moves
Adopted, Fisher and Frey (2014, Close Reading and Writing From Sources; p. 99) Discussion Move
Restating critical points to ensure the targeted information is sufficiently emphasized. Instead of simply responding to the question, teacher reposes the question to the student/group.
That’s an important point!
Redirecting students to do the thinking and responding Keep the speaking and listening opportunities going?
_____, what do you think?
Assisting students to build on one another’s comments.
Did everyone hear that? ____, can you add on?
Help others to recall points made by the group to build connections.
Can you repeat what ____ said? Can you add on to what ____ said? Can you clarify?
Ask for evidence and reasoning.
Verify and clarify
Refocus students on the text.
Where can you find that?
Press for accuracy
Build on prior knowledge
Link ideas from other texts and discussions to the current text.
How does this connect?
Cite textual evidence.
Why do you think that?
Press for reasoning
Expand reasoning with questioning and wait time
Press for elaboration of detail and further examples and evidence.
Take your time and say more.
Summarizing and highlighting statements to help students remember key ideas.
What have we discussed so far?
STRUCTURED CLASSROOM DISCUSSION ROOM ARRANGEMENTS
ACADEMIC DISCUSSION FRAMES
State Opinion/Claim • In my opinion _____. • I believe that _____. • From my perspective ____. • From my point of view_____. • My opinion on this is ____.
Support Ideas with Examples • I think ____ because ____. • ____ is important because ____. • Based on the ideas from ____, ____, and ____, I think that _____. • For example, ____. • One complexing reason is that ____. • A relevant example is ____.
Building on or Challenging Others Ideas • I agree with what ____ said because ____. • You bring up an interesting point, and I also think____.
Paraphrase • What I heard you say was____. • So , you said that ____. • So, you think that____. • So, your idea is that____. • So, your opinion is that____. • So, You’re saying that ____.
• Please give me an example of ____. • Can you give more details on____? • How did you come up with that answer? • Why do you think that_____? • May I add something here? • I don’t really agree because ____? • My idea is different. I think that____? Clarify • I don’t quite understand your ____. • In other words, you are saying that ____.
Elaborate • For example, ____. • A relevant example I heard/read was____. • I have observed that____. • One convincing reason is that____. • A compelling reason is that____. • I experienced this when ____. Synthesize • It is my understanding that ____. • Based on the information, I think that ____. • I learned that ____. • My new thinking is____. • This makes me think of ____. Draw Conclusions • Based on the evidence, ____ is ____. • The data suggests that ____. • After reading ____ I assume that ____. • My analysis of ____ leads me to believe that ____.
• What do you mean by ____? • So, you think we should ____? • Are you suggesting ____?
Comparing Ideas • My idea is similar to ____.
• My response is similar to____. • My stance is comparable to____. • My response is different from____. • My approach is different from ____. • How does this connect to ____? Persuade • The evidence shows that ____. • ____is the best way to ____. • I don’t really agree with you because____. • I see it another way. I think ____. • I have a different perspective ____. • My ideas is slightly different from yours. I believe that____. • I have a different answer than you.
Systematic vocabulary instruction is clear, concise vocabulary instruction presenting the meaning and contextual examples of a word through multiple exposures (e.g., video, images, realia, etc.). It is not the traditional procedure of having students copy a list of words, look up words, copy definitions, or memorize definitions. Systematic vocabulary instruction increases reading comprehension, allows for greater access to content material, increases growth in vocabulary knowledge, and supports struggling readers. Effective vocabulary/academic language instruction is: • Connection: Connect the new word to what the student knows, which helps to build the “semantic network” in the brain. • Use: Academic speaking and writing is constructed as we apply it, not by simply memorizing. Teachers explicitly teach words and their meanings that are: • Based on essential concepts • Unknown to the learner • Critical to future learning • Difficult to obtain independently (or through context)
Critical Actions for Educators *Explicitly teach critical vocabulary before students are expected to use it in context. define, and use critical vocabulary in discreet steps. *Explicitly teach common academic vocabulary across all content areas. *Teach students to say,
Basic Instructional Protocol
1. Introduce the word 2. Provide student-friendly definition of the word 3. Identify word parts, families, and origin 4. Illustrate word with examples
5. Check students’ understanding 6. Deepen students’ understanding 7. Recheck students’ understanding 8. Review and coach use (possible extensions)
OPPORTUNITIES TO RESPOND Effect Size 0.60 Implementation Tools & Resources
Maximizing the opportunities to respond (OTRs) in a classroom or digitally increases student engagement. This allows for positive interactions between teachers and students, creates opportunities for teachers to provide authentic feedback on learning, and decreases inappropriate student behavior. Students are engaged through opportunities to respond when they are saying, writing, or doing (Feldman). When tied to specific learning intentions and success criteria, increased opportunities to respond give teachers more opportunities to give students specific positive and corrective feedback on their learning and understanding. Increasing OTR rates also allows for greater feedback from the student to the teacher. This increased feedback leads to greater instructional agility by providing the teacher with specific knowledge as to which skill set, or content deficit, a student or class might have, thus allowing the teacher to determine if the class needs further instruction and feedback, or if only a small group of students needs more targeted instruction. As teachers move through the instructional sequence of acquisition, automaticity, and application, appropriate target rates of OTRs change. For instance, when students are acquiring new knowledge, OTR rates should be high, and primarily DOK level 1. As teachers move into the automaticity and application stages of instruction, OTR rates may decrease while the DOK level of the OTRs increase.
Critical Actions for Educators *Actively engage ALL students in learning; students are active if they are saying, writing, or doing. *Pace instruction to allow for frequent student responses. *Call on a wide variety of students throughout each period. *Be thoughtful about planning digital OTRs, consider TPACK and SAMR models.
• Small Group Discussion • Structured Classroom Discussions
FEEDBACK BETWEEN TEACHERS & STUDENTS Effect Size 0.75 Implementation Tools & Resources
Feedback lets the learner know whether or not a task was performed correctly and how it might be improved. Feedback is most effective when it is specific, clear, purposeful, compatible with prior knowledge, immediate, and non-threatening. Effective feedback can be given in various ways (i.e video, discussions, in person, notes, canvas comments). When teachers elicit feedback from students, and use that feedback to determine how to best help each student, a high degree of relational trust is built between teacher and student. This relational trust helps build a culture where students feel safe to answer incorrectly and receive corrective feedback without feeling embarrassed. Feedback from Students: Educational research indicates that feedback is one of the most powerful drivers of student achievement. John Hattie’s synthesis of the overall effect size of feedback is very high (ES = 0.75). He states that feedback from students as to what they understand, when they are not engaged, where they make errors, and when they have misconceptions, helps make student learning visible to the teacher. Feedback to Students: Specific positive academic and behavioral feedback, or teacher praise, has been statistically correlated with student on-task behavior (Apter, Arnold, & Stinson, 2010) and has strong empirical support for both increasing academic and behavioral performance and decreasing problem behaviors (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009). There is a continued assertion that teachers maintain a ratio of praise to correction at 3:1 or 4:1 (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009; Stichter, Lewis, & Wittaker, 2009). Feedback Types: Type Description Example
Critical Actions for Educators *Provide timely prompts that indicate when students have done something correctly or incorrectly. opportunity to use the feedback to continue their learning process. *End feedback with the student performing the skill correctly and receiving positive acknowledgement. *Create opportunities for students to give each other feedback in the classroom and digitally. *Give students the
Teacher indicates that a target academic or social behavior is correct. Teacher indicates that an academic or social behavior is incorrect (using a neutral tone and body language).
“Correct! 7 X 4 is 28”
“Johnny, pick up your pencil off the floor please “Try harder on your math worksheet; I know you can do better.”
"That's not quite right, let me give you another clue . . . “